The characteristics of the district
The XVIII. district of Budapest consists of two main settlements, namely Pestszentlőrinc and Pestszentimre. The ratio of the 100.000 permanent inhabitants is 79-21%.
The district is primarily a residential area on the outskirt of Budapest with mainly low-level number private houses, several intensively built-up housing estates and some important industrial establishments. The residential feature is the direct result of the summer resort function from the last century.
The district gives place to the National Airport and some institutions of national importance: National Meteorological Service Prediction Center, Central Atmospheric Institute.
The XVIII. district is situated between the north latitude 47o24’ and 47o28’ and the east longitude 19o49’ and 19o56’. Its largest expansion is 8km in the north-south as well as the east-north direction. It covers 38,61 km2 (of which the periphery covers 6,42km2 and the central area does 32,19km2)
The prevailing temperature and precipitation conditions are typical for the continental climate of the temperate zone.
The average temperature is around 11o, the yearly precipitation varies between 400-600mm. The east-southeast wind is more characteristic for the microclimate of the district unlike the prevailing north-western wind in the country.
The XVIII. district of Budapest lies on the left bank of the River Danube, is part of the lowlands of Pest, although it’s not entirely flat. Its surface ascends eastward. The highest point of the district is where the X., XVII. and XVIII. districts meet in 145m height above sea level, which doesn’t reach the height of Várhegy. The altitude of Gilice square is 138m. The lowest points are at the intersection of Nagykörösi road and Méta street in 115m height.
Due to river deposits of the primeval Danube-bed, very rich gravel sources can be found in the district and to exploit them many gravel-pits were established in the last century: at the cemetery of Lőrinc, in Sashegy next to Péterhalmi road and the Ganz suburban area bordering on Vecsés. Gravel explotation ceased to exist these days. Pannon clay is also available here, in some parts in significant thickness. Two brickyards were operated for a long time to exploit them. The prevailing soil is the sand drift in the area of Pestszentimre.
The surface waters mainly flow into the branch 7 of Gyáli brook. The former Sósmocsár (Salty marshland) ditch was built into drainage ditch to the Ipacsfa street on the track of Lakatos road, Tivadar Margó street, Baross street, Kolozsvári street, from here it goes on in an open ditch along Közdülő street, through Pesterzsébet, towards the Danube. The marshy Büdös tó (Smelly lake) of Nefelejcs street doesn’t have any flowing. The other marshland is situated along Méta street. The surface is not even, there are dents, cavities and basins due to terrain conditions. These deep areas that can’t flow away cause a lot of problems in terms of canalage. In the place of the brickyard operating between 1911 and 1930, in the hole of the claypit, a small lake developed which today functions as a fishing lake.
Under the administration of the Park Forestry of Pilis there are 420 hectares that focus on four territories: The majority of trees are acacia, the minority are planted pine trees. The ratio of the Turkey oak and French oak, which are more suitable for vacation, is relatively small.
Protected plants: the alley of Üllői road and the old trees of the cemetery in Lőrinc.
Valuable tree stocks: the alleys, gardens of the former “clerk-estates”, Kossuth square, the public parks of the residential estates, the former Pioneer park and the area of Strandfürdő (Plage)